The agreement stipulated that it would only enter into force (and thus become fully effective) if 55 countries producing at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to the convention.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries will sign the Paris Climate Agreement.   175 Contracting Parties (174 States and the European Union) signed the Agreement on the day of its first opening for signature.   On the same day, more than 20 countries published a memorandum of understanding to accede as soon as possible in order to accede in 2016. With ratification by the European Union, the agreement received enough contracting parties to vote on 4. November 2016. The prime minister`s trip to New York concludes Friday with a press conference and bilateral meetings with the presidents of Colombia and France. “This agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change.” Trudeau responded that flexibility is key: he said a strong economy means more prosperity that can be invested in policies that lead to a clean energy future. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  Although mitigation and adaptation require higher climate finance, adaptation has generally received less support and mobilized less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report found that in 2014, only 16% of global financing went to climate change adaptation.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance and mitigation, and in particular highlighted the need to increase adaptation support for parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.
 John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double funding for grant-based adaptation by 2020.  WATCH: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau flew to New York to sign the historic Paris Climate Agreement. But there is still a question about whether Canada can keep its promises. Vassy Kapelos reports from New York. US President Barack Obama called the ratification of the Paris Climate Agreement “a historic day in the fight to protect our planet for future generations. If we honour the commitments embodied in this Paris Agreement, history may well see it as a turning point for our planet. Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.
 He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing to do, only to promise” and believes that only a general tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  “Preserving our natural environment without restricting economic opportunities for our citizens is today`s global challenge; A challenge that requires new business models, models that we all know are necessary, but that many of us are still struggling to adopt. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktaking that takes place every 5 years, the framework is designed to provide “built-in flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement takes into account the different situations of certain countries and notes in particular that the review by technical experts for each country takes into account the specific reporting capacity of that country.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and procedures necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  “The international community adopted this agreement because the costs of inaction would be irreversible; And that`s something we can`t afford as humanity. The overall goal of the agreement is to prevent global temperatures from rising by less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels in order to avoid the most catastrophic effects of sea-level rise. A study published in 2018 indicates a threshold at which temperatures could reach 4 or 5 degrees (ambiguous expression, continuity would be “4-5°C”) compared to pre-industrial levels, thanks to self-reinforcing feedbacks in the climate system, suggesting that this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target agreed in the Paris Climate Agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out: “We note that the Earth has never had a near-stable state in its history that is about 2°C warmer than the pre-industrial state and suggest that there is a significant risk that the system itself will `want` additional warming due to all these other processes – even if we stop emissions. This means not only reducing emissions, but much more.
 “As long as we stick to the Paris Agreement – which aims to reduce emissions, not create wealth – all policies that affect emissions will aim to reduce them, not our well-being. China and the European Union reaffirmed their commitment to the deal, while Macron called Trump`s decision a “mistake for the United States and our planet.” As of November 2020, 194 states and the European Union had signed the agreement. 187 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified or acceded to the Convention, including China and India, the countries with the 1st and 3rd largest CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    As of November 2020[update], the United States, Iran and Turkey are the only countries with a share of more than 1% of global emissions that are not contracting parties. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  Ultimately, all parties recognized the need to “avoid, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular, any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.
 The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will seek to answer questions on how to classify, address and share responsibility for losses.  The Prime Minister also visited a famous Brooklyn gym yesterday and boxed. Canada is far from meeting this target – emissions continue to rise and a national plan has not yet been developed. The Prime Minister promised his colleagues that he would continue to work for this. Negotiators of the agreement said the INDCs presented at the Paris conference were inadequate and noted “with concern that the estimated overall greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions do not fall under the most cost-effective 2°C scenarios, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and recognizing “that much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the increase in global average temperature below 2°C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatons or 1.5°C”.  [Clarification needed] The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that will guide global efforts in the coming decades. The aim is to increase countries` climate ambitions over time. To this end, the agreement provides for two review processes, each of which goes through a five-year cycle. In a significant escalation of his campaign against the National Energy Guarantee and in an open political attack on Malcolm Turnbull, Abbott used a speech to a group of climate skeptics Tuesday night to claim that he would not have signed the Paris Agreement if he had known the United States would withdraw from it. When the agreement reached enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, US President Barack Obama said, “Even if we achieve all the goals.” We will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.
  In addition, countries aim to reach a “global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The deal has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Following the conclusion of COP 21 (the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties hosting the Conference) on 12 December 2015, the final text of the Paris Agreement was adopted by mutual agreement between all 195 Member States participating in the UNFCCC and the European Union to reduce emissions as part of the greenhouse gas reduction methodology. In the 12-page agreement, members pledged to reduce their carbon emissions “as quickly as possible” and to do their best to keep global warming “well below 2°C” [3.6°F].  Please choose your username under which you want all your comments to appear. .